Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: 1. the city, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain; 2. stone sculpture "bixie"; 3. Jiming Temple; 4. Yijiang Gate with the City Wall of Nanjing; 5. Qinhuai River and Fuzi Miao; 6. Nanjing Olympic Sports Center; 7. the spirit way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum; 8. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Nanjing is located in China
Location in China
Coordinates: 32°03?N 118°46?E / 32.050°N 118.767°E / 32.050; 118.767Coordinates: 32°03?N 118°46?E / 32.050°N 118.767°E / 32.050; 118.767
Country People's Republic of China
Province Jiangsu
County-level 11
Township-level 129
Settled unknown (Yecheng, 495 BC. Jinling City, 333 BC)
 o Type Sub-provincial city
 o Party Secretary Zhang Jinghua
 o Mayor Lan Shaomin
 o Sub-provincial city 6,587.02 km2 (2,543.26 sq mi)
Elevation 20 m (50 ft)
Population (2017)
 o Sub-provincial city 8,335,000
 o Density 1,237/km2 (3,183/sq mi)
 o Urban (2018)[1] 6,525,000
 o Metro[2] 11.7 million
Demonym(s) Nanjingese[a]
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 210000-211300
Area code(s) 25
ISO 3166 code CN-JS-01
GDP (Nominal) 2017
 - Total US$ 173.5 billion
 - Per capita US$ 20,899
 - Growth Increase 8.1%
GDP (PPP) 2017
 - Total US$ 334.1 billion
 - Per capita US$ 40,246
Licence plate prefixes ?A
Website City of Nanjing
City trees
Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara),
Platanus × acerifolia[3]
City flowers
Méi (Prunus mume)
Nanjing (Chinese characters).svg
"Nanjing" in Chinese characters
Postal Nanking
Literal meaning "Southern Capital"

Nanjing (About this sound listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[4] is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region,[b] with an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,270,500 as of 2016.[5] The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City (), with an area of 55 km2 (21 sq mi), while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi), with a population of over 30 million.

Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[6] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,[7] enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province.[8] Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City.[9] Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index.[10] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index,[11] especially strong in the chemical sciences, and also strong in many other areas, for instance, it hosts the nation's best computer software laboratory and wireless communication laboratory in the IT field, as well as the state key laboratory for pharmaceutical biotechnology.

Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters.[12][13][14][15] Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu(229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period ; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern Dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang(937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms ; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421);[16] and the Republic of China (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan during the Chinese Civil War.[17] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853-64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940-45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered appalling atrocities in both conflicts, including the Nanjing Massacre.

Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum.


The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (), whose former character Jiang (?, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (?, simplified form ?; "Peace") is the short name of Nanjing. When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC, Jing (?; "Capital") was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. It first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. The name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital" (from the Chinese characters ? for south and ? for capital), was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later.[c] Nanjing is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling (, literally "Gold Hill") and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou Dynasty.[18]


Historical affiliations (since Southern Tang)

Early history

Archaeological discovery shows that "Nanjing Man" lived in more than 500 thousand years ago. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago.[19] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture.[20] According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495BC.[21] Later in 473BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng () on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi (?) in the western part of present-day Nanjing.[22] It was renamed Moling () during reign of Qin Shi Huang. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times.[] The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106BC). Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang.

Imperial China

A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.[23]
Yuan dynasty map of Nanjing.

Nanjing first became a state capital in AD229, when the state of Eastern Wu founded by Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period relocated its capital to Jianye (), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in AD211.[16] Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing and its neighboring areas had been well cultivated and developed into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China during the rule of East Wu.[15] This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries.

Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called Jiankang (), replacing Luoyang.[24] This marked the first time a Chinese dynastic capital moved to southern China.

During the period of North-South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia.[25] Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households.[26] Assuming an average Nanjing household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents.[24]

A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District.[27] Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu (475-518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang.[28][29] The period of division ended when the Sui Dynasty reunified China and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town.

Map of Yingtian Fu under the Ming
The ?ar?ra pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.

The city of Nanjing was razed after the Sui dynasty took over it.[30] It was renamed Shengzhou () in Tang dynasty and resuscitated during the late Tang.[31] It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling () during the Southern Tang (937-976), a state that succeeded Wu state.[32] It renamed Jiangning () in Northern Song dynasty and renamed Jiankang in Southern Song dynasty. Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song dynasty despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.[33][34][35] Song was eventually exterminated by the Mongol empire under the name Yuan and in the Yuan dynasty the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated.[36]

Zhonghua Gate is the south gate of the walled city of Nanjing. The city wall was built in the 14th century and is the longest in the world.

The first emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city Yingtian, rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in 1368. He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls.[37] It took 200,000 laborers 21 years to finish the project. The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved.[38] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China.[39] The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402.

It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400.[40] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor persisted in relocating the capital to Beijing, however he had to withdraw his order before his death. Although Beijing was the de facto capital after that, Nanjing remained the official one of the Ming Empire until 1441, when Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the words "??" ("provisional") on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limit power before 1644.

Besides the city wall, other famous Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city[41] or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties.[42]

A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15-20 km (9-12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it.[43]

Du Halde's 1736 map of "Nan-king", based on Jesuit accounts

As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (; Bóní), who died during his visit to China in 1408. The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored.[44]

Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. After the fall of Beijing to Li Zicheng's rebel forces and then to the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in the spring of 1644, the Ming prince Zhu Yousong was enthroned in Nanjing in June 1644 as the Hongguang Emperor.[45][46] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty.[47]

Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring.[48] Days after Yangzhou fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace was looted by local residents.[49] On June 6, Dodo's troops approached Nanjing, and the commander of the city's garrison, Zhao the Earl of Xincheng, promptly surrendered the city to them.[50][51] The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu queue way.[52] They requisitioned a large section of the city for the bannermen's cantonment, and destroyed the former imperial Ming Palace, but otherwise the city was spared the mass murders and destruction that befell Yangzhou.[53]

An artist's impression of the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864).

Under the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang.[54] It was the site of a Qing army garrison.[55] It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (founded by the Taiping rebels[56] in the mid-19th century, Nanjing was known as Tianjing (??; ""Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"").

Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan retook the city in 1864, a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over 100,000 estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death.[57] Since the Taiping Rebellion began, Qing forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect to surrender.[58] This systematic mass murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing.[59]

Modern China

The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanking was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the Last Emperor. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing (closer to his power base).

The headquarters of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927

In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade.

In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II).[60] Their troops occupied Nanjing in December and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking Massacre (the "Rape of Nanking").[61] Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army.[62] The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000.[63] The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre.[61] The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event.

A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing.[64] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing.

On 21 April 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing.[65] The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and then Chengdu before retreating to the island of Taiwan on December 10 where Taipei was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island were left. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, Nanjing was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu province and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang which was transferred in 1928, and retains that status to this day.


Nanjing Region - Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.

Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 km2 (2,548 sq mi), is situated in the heartland of the drainage area of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and in the Yangtze River Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. The city is 650 km (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang, 1,200 km (750 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, 300 km (190 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, and 1,400 km (870 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. The Yangtze River flows downstream from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the East China Sea. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. The area around Nanjing is called Xiajiang (, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part.[d] The region is also well known as Dongnan (, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (, and River South, South of Yangtze).[e]

Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui province, where Nanjing borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu and Maanshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest.[66]

Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east-west water transport artery, and the Nanjing-Beijing railway, a north-south land transport artery, hence the name "door of the east and west, throat of the south and north". Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name "the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching".

Climate and environment

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA[67]
Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.

Nanjing has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is under the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.[68] However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from -14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959.[69][70][71] On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu province. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou.

Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing in his book The International Development of China (?):

Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain--a rare site to be found in any part of the world. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. (?,,,,,,?,...)[72]

To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea.[73]


Nanjing skyline, taken in 2012.

Environmental issues

Air pollution in 2013

7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog

A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 km (750 mi),[74] including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Zhejiang. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region.[75] The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu Province, especially in and around Nanjing,[76] with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine.[77] On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic meter,[78] falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic meter on 4 December 2013.[79] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station.[76] From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased.[80] The smog dissipated 12 December.[81] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China.[82] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[83]


People's Government of Nanjing City

At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary.

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Nanjing is divided into 11 districts.[84]

Map District Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2013) Area (km2)
Xuanwu Xuánw? Q? 660,557 80.97
Qinhuai Qínhuái Q? 1,034,822 50.36
Jianye Jiànyè Q? 446,899 82.00
Gulou G?lóu Q? 1,292,291 57.62
Yuhuatai ? Y?hu?tái Q? 415,885 131.90
Qixia Q?xiá Q? 664,103 340.00
Jiangning Ji?ngníng Q? 1,178,628 1,573.00
Pukou P?k?u Q? 728,798 913.00
Luhe Lùhé Q?[85][86] 926,445 1,485.50
Lishui Lìshu? Q? 419,523 983.00
Gaochun G?ochún Q? 420,429 801.00


Population trend[87]
Year Residents (in million) natural growth rate (%)
1949 2.5670 13.09
1950 2.5670 15.64
1955 2.8034 19.94
1960 3.2259 0.23
1965 3.4529 25.58
1970 3.6053 20.76
1975 3.9299 9.53
1978 4.1238 8.84
1990 5.0182 9.18
Year Residents (in million) natural growth rate (%)
1995 5.2172 2.62
1996 5.2543 2.63
1997 5.2982 2.16
1998 5.3231 1.00
1999 5.3744 2.01
2000 5.4489 2.48
2001 5.5304 1.60
2002 5.6328 0.70
2003 5.7223 1.50
2006 6.0700 6.11

At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million.[2] Official statistics in 2011 estimated the city's population to be 8.11 million. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females.[88][89]

As in most of eastern China the official ethnic makeup of Nanjing is predominantly Han nationality (98.56 percent), with 50 other official ethnic groups. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533). Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.[90]


Earlier development

There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules' people. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development.

The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. Especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing.[91] Several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing. The Nanjing Brocade (?) is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes. Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing were called "tribute satins" (""), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms period. As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Several place names in Nanjing remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (, the market sells wangjin), Guyilang (, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (, the bridge near an oil mill).

Moreover, the trade in Nanjing was also flourishing. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing (, Nánd? Fánhuì Túju?n) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe.

Modern times

Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, .

In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China.[92] Overenthusiastic in building a "world-class" industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From 1960s to 1980s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.


Skyline of Nanjing's Xinjiekou district as seen from Nanjing University's Gulou campus.

The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries.[93] Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R & D institutes in the city. Nanjing is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R & D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology.

In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita(current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), a 11 percent increase from 2012. The average urban resident's disposable income was RMB 36,200, while the average rural resident's net income was RMB 14,513. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.[94]

A panoramic view of Nanjing in 2005
Industrial zones

There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing.


Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. As of October 2014, Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River, which are tying districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.[95]


Nanjing South Railway Station

Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China.[96] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing-Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing-Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xian (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei-Nanjing Railway. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction.

Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. Nanjing Railway Station was first built in 1968.[97] On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire.[98] Reconstruction of the station was finished on September 1, 2005. Nanjing South Railway Station, which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area).[99] Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008.[100] The station was opened for public service in 2011.[101]


Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, built in 1968,[97] the first bridge over the Yangtze River to be built without foreign assistance.

As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China.

Express highways such as Hu-Ning, Ning-He, Ning-Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometrs (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi).[102] The two artery roads in Nanjing are Zhongshan Road and Hanzhong. The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou.


National Highway (GXXX):

Public transportation

The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas.[103] At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of 347 km (216 mi) of route and 164 stations across 9 lines. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S8 and Line S9. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030.[104] The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate the intracity transportation and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion.


Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport, serves both national and international flights. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight.[105] The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,[106] Korea, Thailand,[107][108] Malaysia, Singapore, United States[109] and Germany. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station.[110] Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport as the main airport serving Nanjing. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base.[111]


Port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China, with annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012.[112] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000.[113] Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. As of 2010, it operated six public ports and three industrial ports.[114] The Yangtze River's 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze River's high-tide period.[115]

Yangtze River crossings

In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 meters on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 meters spanning the river itself. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze crossings in Nanjing are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel, First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge.

Culture and art

Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center (Jiangnan Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived.

Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China.


Some of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company among others.

Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art.[116] It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater.

Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan;[117] many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions.


An elderly man sketches plum blossoms at the festival.

Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese.

Instead, Nanjing, as a popular tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival.


Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections.


Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection,.[118] The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world.[119] Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,[f] the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,[g] Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[h] Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[i] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[j]


Most of Nanjing's major theaters are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions. The major theaters include the People's Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. The Capital Theater well known in the past is now a museum in theater/film.

Night life

Qinhuai River

Traditionally Nanjing's nightlife was mostly centered around Nanjing Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) area along the Qinhuai River, where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived.[121] Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts.

In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD and Hunan Road. The well-established "Nanjing 1912" district hosts a wide variety of recreational facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs. There are two major areas where bars are densely located; one is in 1912 block; the other is along Shanghai road and its neighborhood. Both are popular with international residents of the city.

Local people still very much enjoy street food, such as lamb kebabs. As elsewhere in Asia, karaoke is popular with both young and old crowds.

Food and symbolism

Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake.[122]

The radish is also a typical food representing people of Nanjing, which has been spread through word of mouth as an interesting fact for many years in China. According to, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing especially the southern suburb. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. And the people are even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. From health perspective, eating radish can help to offset the stodgy food that people take during the Spring Festival".[123]

Sports and stadiums

Nanjing Olympic Sports Center

Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[124]

As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Jiangsu Suning FC, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing Olympic Sports Center.[125] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. Jiangsu Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China volleyball league.

There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China.

Nanjing hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014.[126][127]

In 2005, in order to host The 10th National Game of People's Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing Olympic Sports Center, constructed in Nanjing. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500,[128] Nanjing Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000.

On 10 February 2010, the 122nd IOC session at Vancouver announced Nanjing as the host city for the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games was "Share the Games, Share our Dreams". The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic programme and were held from 16 to 28 August. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education programme focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation.


Nanjing is one of the most beautiful cities of mainland China with lush green parks, natural scenic lakes, small mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics and much more, which attracts thousands of tourists every year.

Buildings and monuments

Imperial period

Republic of China period

Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Even today, some of them still remain which are open to tourists.

People's Republic of China period

Parks and gardens

Other places of interest


Nanjing has been the educational center in southern China for more than 1700 years. There are 75 institutions of higher learning till 2013. The number of National key laboratories, National key disciplines and the academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering all rank third in the nation. It boasts some of the most prominent educational institutions in the region, some of which are listed as follows:

Nanjing University
 (cropped) - Gate to Nanjing Normal.JPG
Nanjing Normal University.jpg .JPG
Many universities in Nanjing have satellite campuses or
have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City.
Clockwise from top:
  • Gate to Nanjing Normal
  • Nanjing University of Finance
  • Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine
  • Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications
  • Nanjing Normal University

Universities and colleges

National universities and colleges

Operated by Ministry of Education

Operated by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Operated by the joint Commission of the State Forest Administration and Public Order Ministry

Operated by the general sport Administration

National military universities and colleges
Provincial universities and colleges
Private universities and colleges

Notable high schools

Sister cities

Former Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ Nanjingese, sometimes may be translated as Nanjinese, Nankinese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc.. In Nanjing dialect there is no difference between Nanjing and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing dialect, and king and kin are also the same.
  2. ^ In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing.
  3. ^ Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, ) unofficially, and was officially named Nanjing (Nanking) after Peking (Beijing , renamed from Peping or Beiping, ) became a capital city during the early Ming dynasty; the name appears in Ming dynasty echo poem ( ?:","), for example. It's also unofficially called Nandu (), and Nandu Fanhui Tu (?; "Nandu Prosperity Picture") is an example.
  4. ^ Huai (Huai of Jianghuai ) is a big river north of Jiang (the river Yangtze), and the Zhe (Zhe of Jiangzhe )) is a big river south of Jiang.
  5. ^ The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. In ancient times the area was known as Yangchow (). Sometimes the term Jianghai () is used because the region is where the Jiang (Yangtze, river) empties into the Hai (sea).
  6. ^ Liuchao Gudu Bowuguan (?)
  7. ^ Jiangning Zhizao Bowuguan (?)
  8. ^ Nanjing Minsu Bowuguan (?), located in Ganxi House (?) which is said to be the largest Chinese private house, with the nickname Ninety Nine And A Half Rooms.
  9. ^ A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral Zheng He although his body was buried at sea off the Malabar Coast near Calicut in western India.[120]
  10. ^ Jinling Shufa Silao Jinianguan (,)



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See also: Bibliography of the history of Nanjing
  • Cotterell, Arthur (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5. 
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Nanjing and the Lower Yangzi River. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-598-0. 
  • Jun Fang (23 May 2014). China's Second Capital - Nanjing Under the Ming, 1368-1644. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-00845-1. 
  • Eigner, Julius (February 1938). "The Rise and Fall of Nanking" in National Geographic Vol. LXXIII No.2. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 
  • Farmer, Edward L. (1976). Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 
  • Hobart, Alice Tisdale (1927). Within the Walls of Nanking. New York: MacMillan. 
  • Jiang, Zanchu (1995). Nanjing shi hua. Nanjing: Nanjing chu ban she. ISBN 7-80614-159-6. 
  • Lutz, Jessie Gregory (1971). China and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 
  • Ma, Chao Chun (Ma Chaojun) (1937). Nanking's Development, 1927-1937. Nanking: Municipality of Nanking. 
  • Michael, Franz (1972). The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (3 vols.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 
  • Mote, Frederick W. (1977). "The Transformation of Nanking, 1350-1400," in The City in Late Imperial China, ed. by G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Mote, Frederick W., and Twitchett, Denis, ed. (1988). The Cambridge History of China Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Musgrove, Charles D. (2000). "Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927-1937," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Nanking Women's Club (1933). Sketches of Nanking. Nanking: Nanking Women's Club. 
  • Ouchterlony, John (1844). The Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking. London: Saunders and Otley. 
  • Prip-Moller, Johannes (1935). "The Hall of Lin Ku Ssu (Ling Gu Si) Nanking," in Artes Monuments Vol. III. Copenhagen: Artes Monuments. 
  • Smalley, Martha L. (1982). Guide to the Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (Record Group 11). New Haven: Yale University Divinity Library Special Collections. 
  • Struve, Lynn (1988). "The Southern Ming". In Frederic W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (eds.). Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 641-725. .
  • Struve, Lynn A. (1998). "Chapter 4: "The emperor really has left": Nanjing changes hands". Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws. Yale University Press. pp. 55-72. ISBN 0-300-07553-7. 
  • Teng, Ssu Yu (1944). Chang Hsi (Zhang Xi) and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842. Chicago: Chicago University Press. 
  • Thurston, Mrs. Lawrence (Matilda) (1955). Ginling College. New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in China. 
  • Till, Barry (1982). In Search of Old Nanking. Hong Kong: Hong Kong and Shanghai Joint Publishing Company. 
  • Tyau, T.Z. (1930). Two Years of Nationalist China. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh. 
  • Uchiyama, Kiyoshi (1910). Guide to Nanking. Shanghai: China Commercial Press. 
  • Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. (1985), The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-04804-0 .
  • Wang, Nengwei (1998). Nanjing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Nanjing). Nanjing: People's Fine Arts Publishing House. 
  • Ye, Zhaoyan (1998). Lao Nanjing: Jiu Ying Qinhuai (Old Nanjing: Reflections of Scenes on the Qinhuai River). Nanjing: Zhongguo Di Er Lishi Dang An Guan (China Second National Archives). 
  • Yang, Xinhua; Lu, Haiming (2001). Nanjing Ming-Qing Jianzhu (Ming and Qing architecture of Nanjing). Nanjing Daxue Chubanshe (Nanjing University Press). ISBN 7-305-03669-2. 

External links

Preceded by
Capital of China
Succeeded by
Capital of China
Succeeded by
Wuhan (wartime)
Preceded by
Chongqing (wartime)
Capital of China
Succeeded by
Guangzhou (after 23 April)
Taipei (de facto)
for the Republic of China
Succeeded by
for the People's Republic of China

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